London and Bristol have been named the UK's top 'smart cities' in a new Index.
The Smart Cities Index, set up by Chinese technology company Huawei, measures how well urban centres are using digital technology to improve everything from transport infrastructure to refuse collection.
London's congestion charge scheme and the Bristol Is Open project were among the innovations highlighted, while other notable programmes included Birmingham's plans to create a testbed for smart technology and Manchester's new Internet of Things City Demonstrator.
Glasgow's Future Cities Demonstrator programme and Milton Keynes' MK:Smart project were also praised.
Ed Vaizey MP, minister of state for culture and the digital economy, speaking at the launch event said: 'The Huawei UK Smart Cities Index highlights cities developing innovative digital projects and measures how well they are performing against each other.
'I hope it will encourage city leaders to share best practice and promote competition, because smarter use of data and technology drives growth and delivers a better quality of life.'